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Identifies students who write poorly and need special help. Attractive, New color stimulus pictures.

32906 Test of Written Language-Fourth Ed, Complete Kit (TOWL-4 Kit
32906R TOWL-4 Record/Story Scoring Forms, Pk/50
32906A TOWL-4 Student Response Booklets, Form A, Pk/25
32906B TOWL-4 Student Response Booklets, Form B, Pk/25
32906M TOWL-4 Manual


Identifies students who write poorly and need special help. Attractive, New color stimulus pictures.       
Donald D. Hammill and Stephen C. Larsen

  • Age Range: 9.0 through 17.11 years
  • Time: 60-90 minutes

This fourth edition of the Test of Written Language (TOWL-4) is a norm-referenced, comprehensive diagnostic test of written expression.  It determines a students’ particular strengths and weaknesses in writing abilities, documents progress in special writing programs, and measures writing in research.

The TOWL-4 has two forms (A and B) each containing seven subtests representing conventional, linguistic and conceptual aspects of writing. Subtests 1-5 use contrived formats; subtests 6-7 use a spontaneously written story to assess important aspects of language.

TOWL-4 Subtests:

  1. Vocabulary — Sentence writing that incorporates a stimulus word
  2. Spelling — Sentence writing from dictation, making proper use of spelling rules
  3. Punctuation — Sentence writing from dictation, making proper use of punctuation and capitalization rules
  4. Logical Sentences — Editing an illogical sentence so that it makes better sense
  5. Sentence Combining — Integrating the meaning of several short sentences into one grammatically-correct written sentence
  6. Contextual Conventions — Story writing in response to a stimulus picture, with points earned for satisfying arbitrary requirements relative to orthographic and grammatic conventions
  7. Story Composition — Story evaluation relative to the quality of its composition


  • Overall Writing — students’ writing ability, measured by subtests that use both spontaneous and contrived formats. Results of all seven subtests are combined for form this composite.
  • Contrived Writing — students’ writing ability measured by the five contrived format subtests.
  • Spontaneous Writing — students’ writing ability measured by the two subtests that assess and spontaneously-composed essays.

New TOWL-4 features include all new normative data, collected in 2006-2007, with grade-based norms, as well as age-based norms provided. Studies of criterion-prediction validity (with large numbers of participants) have been added. Almost all floor and ceiling effects have been eliminated.

The TOWL-4 Manual includes studies on sensitivity, specificity and false positives.

The TOWL-4 Kit includes 3 Large Colored Picture Cards; 50 4-page Record/Storing Scoring Forms; 25 each of the 12-page Student Response Booklets Forms A and B; a Supplemental Practice Scoring Booklet, and a Manual, in a sturdy storage box.